Low Level Laser Therapy (Cold Laser)

Published: 22nd March 2011
Views: N/A

What it does:
Stimulates cell growth
Increases cell metabolism (Increased ATP production by the mitochondria and increased oxygen consumption on the cellular level)
Improves cell regeneration
Reduces fibrous tissue formation
Stimulates nerve function
Reduces production of substance P (an important element in pain perception)
Stimulates long term production of nitric oxide
Decreases the formation of bradikynin, histamine, and acetylcholine
Increased serotonin and increased endorphins

Increased anti-inflammatory effects through reduced prostaglandin synthesis

Improved blood circulation to the skin in cases like neuralgia and diabetes mellitus

Decreases permeability of the membrane of the nerve cells for Na/K causing hyperpolarisation

Increased lymphatic flow and decreased edema

Physiological Mechanism:
Low Level Red light or Near infrared light penetrates the skin only about 10mm and exerts an effect on the Mitochondria. Specifically it releases NO from Cytochrome C allowing the electron transport chain to resume production of ATP and reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. Increased reactive oxygen species shift the overall redox potential of the cytosol toward greater oxidation. This environment may in turn have an effect on transcription factors such as nuclear factor B which is instrumental in the transcription of protective and stimulatory gene products. The released NO is also now free to exert a localized vasodilatation effect through its effect on cGMP.
Common Types:
Most low level lasers will emit light with a wavelength within the 600nm to 1000nm spectrum.
630nm - 700nm will penetrate between 6 and 10mm
780nm - 890nm will penetrate 2 -3 cm
Higher wavelengths will penetrate 3 - 5 cm
Lasers can also be set to pulse on and off in a duty cycle or superpulse. A duty cycle means that the power is one for part of a second and off for part of a second and a superpulse is a very fast duty cycle. Duty cycles can be used to increase the time of a treatment without increasing the amount of energy given to the cells. Superpulsing is often used with high wavelength light and emits a large amount of power and can actually increase the penetration of higher powered light.
Interesting Facts:
Laser therapy is often described in Joules or how much energy is being emitted. A level of energy can be obtained through an extended period of time with a lower level laser or a shorter time with a higher level laser. Studies on the biphasic dose response show that in many cases a shorter time period will be more beneficial. It is also believed that a lower dose of light all together will be more beneficial as the lower levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species released at a lower dose of light are very beneficial, increased levels of these at higher doses of light can be damaging. So don't let it sit there forever.
It is important to press the laser down into the skin in order to push away any excess fluid in the area. Water in the area will refract the laser.
Contraindications:
Don't shine in the eye
Pregnancy
Tumors
Carcinoma
Do not place over the thyroid gland
Haemorrage
Immune Suppressant Drugs
Treatment Over Sympathetic Ganglia, The Vagus Nerves & Cardiac Region In Patients With Heart Disease

REFERENCES
Ad N and Oron U. 2001. Impact of low level laser irradiation on infarct size in the rat following
myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol 80:109-16.
Agaiby AD, Ghali LR, Wilson R, and Dyson M. 2000. Laser modulation of angiogenic factor production
by T-lymphocytes. Lasers Surg Med 26:357-63.
Aimbire F, Albertini R, Pacheco MT, Castro-Faria-Neto HC, Leonardo PS, Iversen VV, Lopes-Martins
RA, and Bjordal JM. 2006. Low-level laser therapy induces dose-dependent reduction of
TNFalpha levels in acute inflammation. Photomed Laser Surg 24:33-7.
al-Watban FA and Andres BL. 2001. The effect of He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) and Solcoseryl in vitro.
Lasers Med Sci 16:267-75.
Alexandratou E, Yova D, Handris P, Kletsas D, and Loukas S. 2002. Human fibroblast alterations
induced by low power laser irradiation at the single cell level using confocal microscopy.
Photochem Photobiol Sci 1:547-52.
Anders J, Romanczyk T, Moges H, Ilev I, Waynant R, and Longo L. 2007. Light Interaction With
Human Central Nervous System Progenitor Cells. NAALT conference proceedings. 2007
Anggard E. 1994. Nitric oxide: mediator, murderer, and medicine. Lancet 343:1199-206.
Basford JR, Sheffield CG, and Harmsen WS. 1999. Laser therapy: a randomized, controlled trial of
the effects of low-intensity Nd:YAG laser irradiation on musculoskeletal back pain. Arch Phys
Med Rehabil 80:647-52.
Bertolucci LE and Grey T. 1995. Clinical analysis of mid-laser versus placebo treatment of arthralgic
TMJ degenerative joints. Cranio 13:26-9.
Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy
Bjordal JM, Couppe C, Chow RT, Tuner J, and Ljunggren EA. 2003. A systematic review of low level
laser therapy with location-specific doses for pain from chronic joint disorders. Aust J Physiother
49:107-16.
Bjordal JM, Johnson MI, Iversen V, Aimbire F, and Lopes-Martins RA. 2006a. Photoradiation in acute
pain: a systematic review of possible mechanisms of action and clinical effects in randomized
placebo-controlled trials. Photomed Laser Surg 24:158-68.
Bjordal JM, Johnson MI, Lopes-Martins RA, Bogen B, Chow R, and Ljunggren AE. 2007. Short-term
efficacy of physical interventions in osteoarthritic knee pain. A systematic review and metaanalysis
of randomised placebo-controlled trials. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 8:51.
Bjordal JM, Lopes-Martins RA, and Iversen VV. 2006b. A randomised, placebo controlled trial of low
level laser therapy for activated Achilles tendinitis with microdialysis measurement of peritendinous
prostaglandin E2 concentrations. Br J Sports Med 40:76-80; discussion 76-80.
Bolton P, Young S, and Dyson M. 1991. Macrophage responsiveness to light therapy with varying
power and energy densities. Laser Ther 3:6-9.
Brindley GS. 1952. The Bunsen-Roscoe law for the human eye at very short durations. J Physiol
118:135-139.
Brondon P, Stadler I, and Lanzafame RJ. 2005. A study of the effects of phototherapy dose interval
on photobiomodulation of cell cultures. Lasers Surg Med 36:409-13.
Brown GC. 2001. Regulation of mitochondrial respiration by nitric oxide inhibition of cytochrome c
oxidase. Biochim Biophys Acta 1504:46-57.
Caetano KS, Frade MA, Minatel DG, Santana LA, and Enwemeka CS. 2009. Phototherapy Improves
Healing of Chronic Venous Ulcers. Photomed Laser Surg
Calabrese EJ. 2001a. Nitric oxide: biphasic dose responses. Crit Rev Toxicol 31:489-501.
Calabrese EJ. 2001b. The future of hormesis: where do we go from here? Crit Rev Toxicol 31:637-48.
Calabrese EJ. 2002. Hormesis: changing view of the dose-response, a personal account of the history
and current status. Mutat Res 511:181-9.
Calabrese EJ. 2004a. Hormesis: a revolution in toxicology, risk assessment and medicine. EMBO Rep
5 Spec No:S37-40.
Calabrese EJ. 2004b. Hormesis: from marginalization to mainstream: a case for hormesis as the
default dose-response model in risk assessment. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 197:125-36.
Calabrese EJ. 2005. Hormetic dose-response relationships in immunology: occurrence, quantitative
features of the dose response, mechanistic foundations, and clinical implications. Crit Rev
Toxicol 35:89-295.
Carati CJ, Anderson SN, Gannon BJ, and Piller NB. 2003. Treatment of postmastectomy lymphedema
with low-level laser therapy: a double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Cancer 98:1114-22.
Castano AP, Dai T, Yaroslavsky I, Cohen R, Apruzzese WA, Smotrich MH, and Hamblin MR. 2007.
Low-level laser therapy for zymosan-induced arthritis in rats: Importance of illumination time.
Lasers Surg Med 39:543-50.
Chen AC-H, Arany PR, Huang Y-Y, Tomkinson EM, Saleem T, Yull FE, Blackwell TS, and Hamblin
MR. (2009a). Low level laser therapy activates NF-?B via generation of reactive oxygen species
in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In Mechanisms for Low-Light Therapy IV, Hamblin, M.R.,
Anders, J.J. & Waynant, R.W. (eds), Vol. 7165. pp. doi: 10.1117/12.809605. The International
Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, : San Jose.
Chen AC-H, Arany PR, Huang YY, Tomkinson EM, Saleem T, Yull FE, Blackwell TS, and Hamblin MR.
2009b. Low level laser therapy activates NF-?B via generation of reactive oxygen species in
mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Proc SPIE in press:
Chow RT, Heller GZ, and Barnsley L. 2006. The effect of 300 mW, 830 nm laser on chronic neck pain:
a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Pain 124:201-10.
Corazza AV, Jorge J, Kurachi C, and Bagnato VS. 2007. Photobiomodulation on the angiogenesis of
skin wounds in rats using different light sources. Photomed Laser Surg 25:102-6.
Day RM and Suzuki YJ. 2005. Cell proliferation, reactive oxygen and cellular glutathione. Dose
Response 3:425-42.
Demidova-Rice TN, Salomatina EV, Yaroslavsky AN, Herman IM, and Hamblin MR. 2007. Low-level
light stimulates excisional wound healing in mice. Lasers Surg Med 39:706-15.
Diaz G, Liu S, Isola R, Diana A, and Falchi AM. 2003. Mitochondrial localization of reactive oxygen
species by dihydrofluorescein probes. Histochem Cell Biol 120:319-25.
Y.-Y. Huang and others
Fillipin LI, Mauriz JL, Vedovelli K, Moreira AJ, Zettler CG, Lech O, Marroni NP, and Gonzalez-
Gallego J. 2005. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) prevents oxidative stress and reduces fibrosis in
rat traumatized Achilles tendon. Lasers Surg Med 37:293-300.
Gao X and Xing D. 2009. Molecular mechanisms of cell proliferation induced by low power laser irradiation.
J Biomed Sci 16:4.
Gavish L, Perez L, and Gertz SD. 2006. Low-level laser irradiation modulates matrix metalloproteinase
activity and gene expression in porcine aortic smooth muscle cells. Lasers Surg Med 38:779-86.
Gigo-Benato D, Geuna S, de Castro Rodrigues A, Tos P, Fornaro M, Boux E, Battiston B, and
Giacobini-Robecchi MG. 2004. Low-power laser biostimulation enhances nerve repair after endto-
side neurorrhaphy: a double-blind randomized study in the rat median nerve model. Lasers
Med Sci 19:57-65.
Ginsbach G. 1979. Laser induced stimulation of woundhealing in bad healing wounds. Proc Laser '79
Opto Elektronics Conf Munich. IPC Science and Technology Press Guildford UK 5.
Goncalves WL, Souza FM, Conti CL, Cirqueira JP, Rocha WA, Pires JG, Barros LA, and Moyses MR.
2007. Influence of He-Ne laser therapy on the dynamics of wound healing in mice treated with
anti-inflammatory drugs. Braz J Med Biol Res 40:877-84.
Greco M, Guida G, Perlino E, Marra E, and Quagliariello E. 1989. Increase in RNA and protein synthesis
by mitochondria irradiated with helium-neon laser. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 163:1428-34.
Grossman N, Schneid N, Reuveni H, Halevy S, and Lubart R. 1998. 780 nm low power diode laser
irradiation stimulates proliferation of keratinocyte cultures: involvement of reactive oxygen
species. Lasers Surg Med 22:212-8.
Gupta AK, Filonenko N, Salansky N, and Sauder DN. 1998. The use of low energy photon therapy
(LEPT) in venous leg ulcers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Dermatol Surg 24:1383-6.
Gur A, Sarac AJ, Cevik R, Altindag O, and Sarac S. 2004. Efficacy of 904 nm gallium arsenide low level
laser therapy in the management of chronic myofascial pain in the neck: a double-blind and
randomize-controlled trial. Lasers Surg Med 35:229-35.
Hashimoto K, Kemmotsu O, Otsuka H, Numazawa R, and Ohta Y. 1997. Efficacy of laser irradiation
on the area near the stellate ganglion is dose-dependent: a double-blind crossover placebo-controlled
study. Laser Therapy 7:5.
Hawkins D and Abrahamse H. 2006a. Effect of multiple exposures of low-level laser therapy on the
cellular responses of wounded human skin fibroblasts. Photomed Laser Surg 24:705-14.
Hawkins DH and Abrahamse H. 2006b. The role of laser fluence in cell viability, proliferation, and
membrane integrity of wounded human skin fibroblasts following helium-neon laser irradiation.
Lasers Surg Med 38:74-83.
Hopkins JT, McLoda TA, Seegmiller JG, and David Baxter G. 2004. Low-level laser therapy facilitates
superficial wound healing in humans: a triple-blind, sham-controlled study. J Athl Train
39:223-229.
Huang SS and Zheng RL. 2006. Biphasic regulation of angiogenesis by reactive oxygen species.
Pharmazie 61:223-9.
Imlay JA. 2008. Cellular defenses against superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Annu Rev Biochem
77:755-76.
Karu T. 1989. Laser biostimulation: a photobiological phenomenon. J Photochem Photobiol B 3:638-40.
Karu T. 1999. Primary and secondary mechanisms of action of visible to near-IR radiation on cells. J
Photochem Photobiol B 49:1-17.
Karu TI and Afanas'eva NI. 1995. Cytochrome c oxidase as the primary photoacceptor upon laser
exposure of cultured cells to visible and near IR-range light. Dokl Akad Nauk 342:693-5.
Karu TI and Kolyakov SF. 2005. Exact action spectra for cellular responses relevant to phototherapy.
Photomed Laser Surg 23:355-61.
Karu TI, Pyatibrat LV, and Ryabykh TP. 1997. Nonmonotonic behavior of the dose dependence of
the radiation effect on cells in vitro exposed to pulsed laser radiation at lambda = 820 nm.
Lasers Surg Med 21:485-92.
Klotz LO, Kroncke KD, and Sies H. 2003. Singlet oxygen-induced signaling effects in mammalian
cells. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2:88-94.
Kreisler M, Christoffers AB, Willershausen B, and d'Hoedt B. 2003. Effect of low-level GaAlAs laser
irradiation on the proliferation rate of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts: an in vitro
study. J Clin Periodontol 30:353-8.
Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy
Lampl Y, Zivin JA, Fisher M, Lew R, Welin L, Dahlof B, Borenstein P, Andersson B, Perez J, Caparo
C, Ilic S, and Oron U. 2007. Infrared Laser Therapy for Ischemic Stroke: A New Treatment
Strategy. Results of the NeuroThera Effectiveness and Safety Trial-1 (NEST-1). Stroke
Lane N. 2006. Cell biology: power games. Nature 443:901-3.
Lane P and Gross SS. 1999. Cell signaling by nitric oxide. Semin Nephrol 19:215-29.
Lanzafame RJ, Stadler I, Kurtz AF, Connelly R, Peter TA, Sr., Brondon P, and Olson D. 2007.
Reciprocity of exposure time and irradiance on energy density during photoradiation on
wound healing in a murine pressure ulcer model. Lasers Surg Med 39:534-42.
Lapchak PA, Han MK, Salgado KF, Streeter J, and Zivin JA. 2008. Safety profile of transcranial nearinfrared
laser therapy administered in combination with thrombolytic therapy to embolized rabbits.
Stroke 39:3073-8.
Lavi R, Shainberg A, Friedmann H, Shneyvays V, Rickover O, Eichler M, Kaplan D, and Lubart R.
2003. Low energy visible light induces reactive oxygen species generation and stimulates an
increase of intracellular calcium concentration in cardiac cells. J Biol Chem 278:40917-22.
Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Baroni BM, De Marchi T, Taufer D, Manfro DS, Rech M, Danna
V, Grosselli D, Generosi RA, Marcos RL, Ramos L, and Bjordal JM. 2008a. Effect of 830 nm lowlevel
laser therapy applied before high-intensity exercises on skeletal muscle recovery in athletes.
Lasers Med Sci
Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, Vanin AA, Baroni BM, Grosselli D, De Marchi T, Iversen VV, and
Bjordal JM. 2008b. Effect of 830 nm low-level laser therapy in exercise-induced skeletal muscle
fatigue in humans. Lasers Med Sci
Loevschall H and Arenholt-Bindslev D. 1994. Effect of low level diode laser irradiation of human oral
mucosa fibroblasts in vitro. Lasers Surg Med 14:347-54.
Lopes-Martins RA, Albertini R, Martins PS, Bjordal JM, and Faria Neto HC. 2005. Spontaneous effects
of low-level laser therapy (650 nm) in acute inflammatory mouse pleurisy induced by
Carrageenan. Photomed Laser Surg 23:377-81.
Lubart R, Eichler M, Lavi R, Friedman H, and Shainberg A. 2005. Low-energy laser irradiation promotes
cellular redox activity. Photomed Laser Surg 23:3-9.
Lubart R, Lavi R, Friedmann H, and Rochkind S. 2006. Photochemistry and photobiology of light
absorption by living cells. Photomed Laser Surg 24:179-85.
Lubart R, Wollman Y, Friedmann H, Rochkind S, and Laulicht I. 1992. Effects of visible and nearinfrared
lasers on cell cultures. J Photochem Photobiol B 12:305-10.
Martius F. 1923. Das Amdt-Schulz Grandgesetz. Munch Med Wschr 70:1005-1006.
Mester E, Nagylucskay S, Waidelich W, Tisza S, Greguss P, Haina D, and Mester A. 1978. Effects of
direct laser radiation on human lymphocytes. Arch Dermatol Res 263:241-5.
Mester E, Szende. B. and Tota, J.G. 1967. Effect of laser on hair growth of mice. Kiserl Orvostud
19:628-631.
Mitka M. 1998. 1998 NObel Prize winners are announced: three discoverers of nitric oxide activity.
Jama 280:1648.
Moore P, Ridgway TD, Higbee RG, Howard EW, and Lucroy MD. 2005. Effect of wavelength on lowintensity
laser irradiation-stimulated cell proliferation in vitro. Lasers Surg Med 36:8-12.
Morrone G, Guzzardella GA, Torricelli P, Rocca M, Tigani D, Brodano GB, Fini M, and Giardino R.
2000. Osteochondral lesion repair of the knee in the rabbit after low-power diode Ga-Al-As laser
biostimulation: an experimental study. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol 28:321-36.
Oron A, Oron U, Streeter J, de Taboada L, Alexandrovich A, Trembovler V, and Shohami E. 2007.
low-level laser therapy applied transcranially to mice following traumatic brain injury significantly
reduces long-term neurological deficits. J Neurotrauma 24:651-6.
Oron U, Yaakobi T, Oron A, Hayam G, Gepstein L, Rubin O, Wolf T, and Ben Haim S. 2001a.
Attenuation of infarct size in rats and dogs after myocardial infarction by low-energy laser irradiation.
Lasers Surg Med 28:204-11.
Oron U, Yaakobi T, Oron A, Mordechovitz D, Shofti R, Hayam G, Dror U, Gepstein L, Wolf T,
Haudenschild C, and Haim SB. 2001b. Low-energy laser irradiation reduces formation of scar
tissue after myocardial infarction in rats and dogs. Circulation 103:296-301.
Ozcelik O, Cenk Haytac M, Kunin A, and Seydaoglu G. 2008. Improved wound healing by low-level
laser irradiation after gingivectomy operations: a controlled clinical pilot study. J Clin
Periodontol 35:250-4.
Y.-Y. Huang and others
Ozdemir F, Birtane M, and Kokino S. 2001. The clinical efficacy of low-power laser therapy on pain
and function in cervical osteoarthritis. Clin Rheumatol 20:181-4.
Pal G, Dutta A, Mitra K, Grace MS, Romanczyk TB, Wu X, Chakrabarti K, Anders J, Gorman E,
Waynant RW, and Tata DB. 2007. Effect of low intensity laser interaction with human skin
fibroblast cells using fiber-optic nano-probes. J Photochem Photobiol B 86:252-61.
Passarella S, Casamassima E, Molinari S, Pastore D, Quagliariello E, Catalano IM, and Cingolani A.
1984. Increase of proton electrochemical potential and ATP synthesis in rat liver mitochondria
irradiated in vitro by helium-neon laser. FEBS Lett 175:95-9.
Pryor WA, Houk KN, Foote CS, Fukuto JM, Ignarro LJ, Squadrito GL, and Davies KJ. 2006. Free radical
biology and medicine: it's a gas, man! Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 291:R491-511.
Rochkind S, Leider-Trejo L, Nissan M, Shamir MH, Kharenko O, and Alon M. 2007. Efficacy of 780-
nm laser phototherapy on peripheral nerve regeneration after neurotube reconstruction procedure
(double-blind randomized study). Photomed Laser Surg 25:137-43.
Schreck R, Albermann K, and Baeuerle PA. 1992. Nuclear factor kappa B: an oxidative stress-responsive
transcription factor of eukaryotic cells (a review). Free Radic Res Commun 17:221-37.
Schubert MM, Eduardo FP, Guthrie KA, Franquin JC, Bensadoun RJ, Migliorati CA, Lloid CM,
Eduardo CP, Walter NF, Marques MM, and Hamdi M. 2007. A phase III randomized doubleblind
placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine the efficacy of low level laser therapy for the
prevention of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Support
Care Cancer 15:1145-54.
Schulz H. 1877. Uber die Theorie der Arzneimittelwirkung. Virchows Archiv 108:423--434.
Schulz H. 1888. Uber Hefegiste. Pflügers Archiv Gesammte Physiologie 42:517-541.
Shao XH, Yang YP, Dai J, Wu JF, and Bo AH. 2005. Effects of He-Ne laser irradiation on chronic
atrophic gastritis in rats. World J Gastroenterol 11:3958-61.
Shefer G, Partridge TA, Heslop L, Gross JG, Oron U, and Halevy O. 2002. Low-energy laser irradiation
promotes the survival and cell cycle entry of skeletal muscle satellite cells. J Cell Sci
115:1461-9.
Shiva S and Gladwin MT. 2009. Shining a light on tissue NO stores: near infrared release of NO from
nitrite and nitrosylated hemes. J Mol Cell Cardiol 46:1-3.
Sommer AP, Pinheiro AL, Mester AR, Franke RP, and Whelan HT. 2001. Biostimulatory windows in
low-intensity laser activation: lasers, scanners, and NASA's light-emitting diode array system. J
Clin Laser Med Surg 19:29-33.
Stadler I, Evans R, Kolb B, Naim JO, Narayan V, Buehner N, and Lanzafame RJ. 2000. In vitro effects of
low-level laser irradiation at 660 nm on peripheral blood lymphocytes. Lasers Surg Med 27:255-61.
Stebbing AR. 1982. Hormesis; the stimulation of growth by low levels of inhibitors. Sci Tot Environ
22:213-234.
Stelian J, Gil I, Habot B, Rosenthal M, Abramovici I, Kutok N, and Khahil A. 1992. Improvement of
pain and disability in elderly patients with degenerative osteoarthritis of the knee treated with
narrow-band light therapy. J Am Geriatr Soc 40:23-6.
Stergioulas A, Stergioula M, Aarskog R, Lopes-Martins RA, and Bjordal JM. 2008. Effects of low-level
laser therapy and eccentric exercises in the treatment of recreational athletes with chronic
achilles tendinopathy. Am J Sports Med 36:881-7.
Storz P. 2007. Mitochondrial ROS--radical detoxification, mediated by protein kinase D. Trends Cell
Biol 17:13-8.
Sutherland JC. 2002. Biological effects of polychromatic light. Photochem Photobiol 76:164-70.
Tafur J and Mills PJ. 2008. Low-intensity light therapy: exploring the role of redox mechanisms.
Photomed Laser Surg 26:323-8.
Townsend JF and Luckey TD. 1960. Hormoligosis in pharmacology. J Am Med Assoc 173:44-48.
Tumilty S, Munn J, McDonough S, Hurley DA, Basford JR, and Baxter GD. 2009. Low Level Laser
Treatment of Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis Photomed Laser Surg
Ahead of print:
Vasseljen O, Jr., Hoeg N, Kjeldstad B, Johnsson A, and Larsen S. 1992. Low level laser versus placebo
in the treatment of tennis elbow. Scand J Rehabil Med 24:37-42.
Watson MR, Wallace K, Gieling RG, Manas DM, Jaffray E, Hay RT, Mann DA, and Oakley F. 2008. NFkappaB
is a critical regulator of the survival of rodent and human hepatic myofibroblasts. J
Hepatol 48:589-97.
Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy
Weber JB, Pinheiro AL, de Oliveira MG, Oliveira FA, and Ramalho LM. 2006. Laser therapy improves
healing of bone defects submitted to autologous bone graft. Photomed Laser Surg 24:38-44.
Wu S, Xing D, Gao X, and Chen WR. 2009. High fluence low-power laser irradiation induces mitochondrial
permeability transition mediated by reactive oxygen species. J Cell Physiol 218:603-11.
Yaakobi T, Shoshany Y, Levkovitz S, Rubin O, Ben Haim SA, and Oron U. 2001. Long-term effect of
low energy laser irradiation on infarction and reperfusion injury in the rat heart. J Appl Physiol
90:2411-9.
Yamaura M, Yao M, Yaroslavsky I, Cohen R, Smotrich M, and Kochevar IE. 2009. Low level light
effects on inflammatory cytokine production by rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. Lasers Surg
Med 41:282-90.
Yu W, Naim JO, and Lanzafame RJ. 1994. The effect of laser irradiation on the release of bFGF from
3T3 fibroblasts. Photochem Photobiol 59:167-70.
Yu W, Naim JO, and Lanzafame RJ. 1997. Effects of photostimulation on wound healing in diabetic
mice. Lasers Surg Med 20:56-63.
Zhang J, Xing D, and Gao X. 2008. Low-power laser irradiation activates Src tyrosine kinase through
reactive oxygen species-mediated signaling pathway. J Cell Physiol 217:518-28.
Zhang Y, Song S, Fong CC, Tsang CH, Yang Z, and Yang M. 2003. cDNA microarray analysis of gene
expression profiles in human fibroblast cells irradiated with red light. J Invest Dermatol 120:849-57.
Zivin JA, Albers GW, Bornstein N, Chippendale T, Dahlof B, Devlin T, Fisher M, Hacke W, Holt W,
Ilic S, Kasner S, Lew R, Nash M, Perez J, Rymer M, Schellinger P, Schneider D, Schwab S,
Veltkamp R, Walker M, and Streeter J. 2009. Effectiveness and safety of transcranial laser therapy
for acute ischemic stroke. Stroke 40:1359-64

Report this article Ask About This Article


Loading...
More to Explore